Facts & figures
- Full name: Arab Republic of Egypt
- Population: 83.9 million (UN, 2012)
- Capital: Cairo
- Area: 1 million sq km (386,874 sq miles)
- Major language: Arabic
- Major religions: Islam, Christianity
- Life expectancy: 72 years (men), 76 years (women) (UN)
- Monetary unit: 1 Egyptian Pound = 100 piastres
- Main exports: Petroleum, petroleum products and cotton
- GNI per capita: US $2,600 (World Bank, 2011)
- Internet domain: .eg
- International dialling code: +20
Retired Field Marshal Abdel Fattah al-Sisi was elected president in May 2014, almost a year after he removed his predecessor,
President Mohammed Morsi, from office.
Visa & travel advice
1 Nationals from UK , EU and USA travelling to Sharm El Sheikh, Dahab, Nuweiba and Taba resorts ONLY, for a maximum of 14 DAYS, do not require a visa prior to travelling as a free entry permission stamp will be granted upon arrival. If they intend to travel outside of the above mentioned areas they MUST obtain a Visa.
2 Nationals from (Arab countries) are advised to contact the Consulate General before applying for the visa in order to confirm the required documentation.
3 For The following nationalities and holders of Travel Documents, please see Section I: Iran, Tunisia, Somalia, Morocco, Algeria, Lebanon, Iraq, Palestine, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Sudan (non residents in the UK), Djibouti, Mauritania, Comoros, Burundi, Rwanda, Liberia, Nigeria, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Mali, Niger, Chad, Israel, Afghanistan, Kosovo, Moldova, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Myanmar.
4 In addition to UK and EU nationals, citizens of the following countries can obtain visa upon arrival at any of the Egyptian ports of entry: Australia, Canada, Croatia, Georgia, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Macedonia, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Serbia, Ukraine and USA.
- Best period
Egypt has two seasons: a mild winter, from November to April, and a hot summer, from May to October. More often than not, days are warm or hot and nights are cool and breezy. The only major differences between winter and summer are the daytime high temperatures and the changes in wind flow. Summers in the desert undergo wide variations between day temperatures and night ones: average minimums are 57 degrees Fahrenheit (14 degrees Celcius,) and high temps can climb to over 104 degrees Fahrenheit (40 degrees Celcius.) The lower temperatures in Alexandria have made the city a popular summer resort. Egypt receives very little rainfall annually, so the best time of year to visit is either in September through November or February through April, for taking advantage of the mild air.
- Safety :
The Egyptian government is aware that it’s in its best financial interest to make sure that tourists are kept safe in the country. Apart from isolated occurrences, Egypt has put in place many safety systems to ensure the protection and well-being of its visitors. Millions of international travelers flock to Egypt’s ancient sites every year, and they have no reason to feel unsafe. As always, however, use your best judgment when traveling in a foreign nation, and exercise heightened caution if you’re going outside the normal tourist areas and closer to Egypt’s borders. You can keep up-to-date with any advisories through the U.S. Department of State’s travel page on Egypt.
There is evidence of rock carvings along the Nile terraces and in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BC, a culture of hunter-gatherers and fishers was replaced by a grain-grinding culture. Climate changes or overgrazing around 8000 BC began to desiccate the pastoral lands of Egypt, forming the Sahara. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralized society.
- Music :
Music has been an integral part of Egyptian culture since antiquity. The ancient Egyptians credited one of the powerful gods Hathor with the invention of music, which Osiris in turn used as part of his effort to civilize the world. The earliest material and representational evidence of Egyptian musical instruments dates to the Predynastic period, but the evidence is more securely attested in the Old Kingdom when harps, flutes and double clarinets were played.Percussion instruments,and lutes were added to orchestras by the Middle Kingdom. Cymbals frequently accompanied music and dance, much as they still do in Egypt today. Egyptian folk music, including the traditional Sufi dhikr rituals, are the closest contemporary music genre to ancient Egyptian music, having preserved many of its features, rhythms and instruments.
- Literature :
Egyptian literature traces its beginnings to ancient Egypt and is some of the earliest known literature. Indeed, the Egyptians were the first culture to develop literature as we know it today, that is, the book.
- Film industry :
The cinema of Egypt refers to the flourishing Egyptian Arabic-language film industry based in Cairo, the capital of Egypt. Since 1976, Cairo has held the annual Cairo International Film Festival, which has been accredited by the International Federation of Film Producers Associations. There is also another festival held in Alexandria. Of the more than 4,000 short and feature-length films made in Arabic-speaking countries since 1908, more than three-quarters were Egyptian.
- Famous monuments :
The Giza necropolis, situated in the immediate vicinity of the southwestern suburbs of Cairo is home to the most famous ancient Egyptian monuments. The pyramids in Giza were built over the span of three generations – by Khufu, his second reigning son Khafre, and Menkaure. The Great Pyramid of Khufu is the oldest and sole remnant of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
Although badly ruined, few sites in Egypt are more impressive than Karnak. It is the largest ancient religious site in the world, and represents the combined achievement of many generations of Egyptian builders.
Abu Simbel is an archaeological site comprising two massive rock temples in southern Egypt on the western bank of Lake Nasser. The twin temples were originally carved out of the mountainside during the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses The Great in the 13th century BC, as a lasting monument to himself and his queen Nefertari.
- Architecture history
Ancient Egyptian architecture is the architecture of ancient Egypt, one of the most influential civilizations throughout history, which developed a vast array of diverse structures and great architectural monuments along the Nile, among the largest and most famous of which are the Great Pyramid of Giza and the Great Sphinx of Giza.